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Analysis of Conditions



Part 1. Building Conditions

II.1.A Campus Planning History

Campus plans for the years 1922, 1945, 1950, 1960, 1969, 1980, 1984 and 1991 have been examined during the Framework Planning process.

A review of the history of campus development is important, because the character of the physical campus has been established by previous development.  Land use patterns, circulation patterns and open space networks are now fundamentally set and new development will react to existing conditions.  It is apparent that various concepts explored in previous planning have proven to be recurring, such as the development of open space west of the Chapel.  Various infill sites have been identified and confirmed by successive plans.  It is also apparent that the direction of planning at Gustavus is capable of departing radically from previous thinking.  The siting of Christ Chapel, the siting of Schafer Fine Arts Center and the siting of Lund Center, all departed from the direction of previous plans.  The Campus Framework Plan is an opportunity to define the campus character, by both creating new patterns and strengthening or modifying old patterns.

The institution we know today as Gustavus Adolphus College began its association with its current location in 1873 after three citizens groups in the region provided the leadership and funds to build a new building for the St. Ansgar’s Academy, then located in East Union.  A five acre site located on the gentle bluffs over looking the City of St. Peter was included in the incentive.  The new building, known today as Old Main, was constructed in 1876 and has served the College ever since.  In the 1870’s the City of St. Peter was an orderly community, laid out in an orthogonal grid of city blocks.  The city grid was parallel to the steamboat landing on the Minnesota River, which flows from the southwest to the northeast.  The location of Old Main at the head of Cedar Street (now College Avenue) set the pattern of future campus development within the confines of the surrounding city grid.

By 1884, Old Main was flanked by two brick residence halls.  Eventually other structures began to string out in a linear fashion along the edge of the bluff.  The gravel drive connecting the original campus buildings became known as Hello Walk.  By 1890, the campus consisted of six structures.  Building growth resumed in 1904 when the Auditorium was built, followed by Johnson Hall in 1909.  Johnson Hall departed from the linear arrangement of the campus building along Hello Walk, and was situated down the bluff from Old Main, facing the open landscape between the College and St. Peter.

The next major buildings were: the Gymnasium, 1921 (now Johnson Student Union); Hollingsworth Field, 1929; Uhler Hall, 1929;  and Rundstrom Hall, 1939.  The siting of these buildings continued the development of the campus away from Hello Walk.  A 1922 Campus Plan by Magney & Tusler located a library/museum, a science hall and two future buildings down the hill from Old Main, two on each side of Main Driveway, which at that time extended up to Old Main from College Avenue.  The Gymnasium was sited behind Old Main, along the existing alignment of the old City of St. Peter 9th Street, creating a triumvirate relationship between Old Main, the Auditorium and the Gymnasium.  This siting created a second tier of buildings to the west, which evolved into the North Mall that today terminates at the Three Flags.  Of the four building sites proposed down the hill from Old Main, Rundstrom was built on the site of the library/museum.  Uhler was built down the hill, not in the exact location as planned, but in the spirit of the plan.

A Campus Plan was prepared by the Minneapolis firm of Morell and Nichols, Inc. in 1945.  Several schemes were proposed in this planning process.  Each scheme included the development of a ring road and north-south mall with the potential for a east-west cross mall located at the southern end.  Sites for approximately a dozen buildings were proposed, including a power plant, library and dormitory.  This planning exercise determined the siting of Wahlstrom Hall, 1947, and the Library, 1948 and anticipated the eventual siting of the North/Link/Sorenson complex.

In the early 1950’s, Magney Tusler and Setter of Minneapolis prepared another Campus Plan.  This plan reinforced the direction of the 1945 plan and again suggested a north-south mall with an east-west leg.  The site for North/Link/Sorenson was selected, and ring road modifications were suggested.

Sometime between 1955 and 1960, planning for Christ Chapel began.  A 1960 map of the campus by Magney Setter Leach and Lindstrom shows the Chapel under construction.  This siting has proven pivotal in the shaping of the campus we see today.  The north-south mall was stopped short and Christ Chapel became the focal point for a cruciform campus development plan.  Christ Chapel joined Old Main as a campus icon.

In 1969, Setter Leach and Lindstrom developed a new campus plan, incorporating a series of projects by other architects that were already underway.  The most significant of these was the Schafer Fine Arts Center.  It completed the South Mall and prematurely stopped the east/west open space envisioned by early planners.  The 1969 Campus Plan identified the development of an athletic complex at the head of the North Mall, where parking Lot A has now replaced the fieldhouse.  An academic complex was located to the west of Christ Chapel using the Chapel as the focal point of the open space and creating a west entrance off a proposed completed ring road.  The Stadium would have been relocated to the north-west.  Infill sites were identified and a dormitory complex was proposed south of the ring road, near Jefferson Avenue.  With the exception of Schaefer and the new Library, which were already in progress, very little of this plan was realized, although the siting of one of the academic complex buildings anticipated the eventual location of Olin.

The next planning effort was a workshop held in 1980 with Jim Burns, a noted planning consultant and former partner of Lawrence Halprin.  Among other topics, the workshop recommended a new athletics complex connecting Lund and the Food Service Building.  Uhler was recommended for renovation rather than demolition.  Several additions were recommended at infill sites and a large underground auditorium was proposed south of Vickner.  Energy conservation was a theme of the workshop.  The Fieldhouse was recommended for removal and replacement with an alternative housing project.  The expansion of the Arboretum reserved the remaining property outside of the ring road.

In the mid 1980’s Herb Baldwin, a landscape architect, provided a series of plans that explored the implications of the proposed relocation of Highway 5, searched for a site for a proposed tennis facility (Swanson Tennis Center) and responded to the acquisition by the College of the “Gardner 80 Acres” and the proposed acquisition of the “Lambert 40 Acres”.  These plans proposed the creation of a new vehicular access road from College Circle to Christ Chapel, structured around a tree-lined parkway.  They also proposed the relocation of Hollingsworth Field to accommodate a new science building.  These plans were the impetus for siting Olin Hall.

The firm of BRW was engaged in 1991 to resolve several planning issues:  first, the proposed realignment and extension of County Roads 5 and 46 (Nicollet Avenue); second, the long term development of the arboretum; and third, the relocation of Hollingsworth Field.  The Stadium was shown in the Gardner 80, and Nicollet Avenue was shown diverted to the far-western edge of College property.  The recurring concept of developing an east-west mall, focusing on Christ Chapel, and committed to by Olin Hall, was again explored, this time as an academic and residential mall which would extend into and modify the ring road to the west.  Revisions to Parking Lot A were recommended, including a visitor center.  Several infill sites were identified.  The plan proposed revisions to the northern zone of the Arboretum and relocated athletic/recreation fields to the far west of the “Gardner 80 Acres.”

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II.1.B Building Chronology

Development has generally occurred in a pattern to the west of the original campus buildings, due primarily to the bluff line topography.  The earliest buildings were small and in a compact cluster.  These older buildings were removed or lost to fire in the 1960’s through the 1980’s with a corresponding change of campus character from smaller scale buildings to larger complexes.  The preferred location for new buildings has consistently been at the campus perimeter, as opposed to using infill sites.  However the precedent of incremental additions to existing buildings has been established in such examples as the Food Service Buildings, Lund, Confer and Vickner, and the North/Link/Sornenson Complex.  Finally, it is apparent that the most recent buildings have also generally been very massive.  As building size has increased, the distance between buildings has increased.

The most dramatic growth in building area occurred from 1960 to 1970.  According to a 1989 Olin Foundation grant application, academic space tripled from 1960 to 1970, showing an increase from 103,900 sf to 320,640 sf.  Support space (including recreational space) more than doubled from 258,940 sf to 536,160 sf in the same period.  Enrollment growth from 1960 to 1970, was from 1148 to 1910 students.  In 1980, the enrollment was 2259, and in 1990, rose to 2324 (source – BRW Master Plan).  In 1994, The Focus on Excellence Report stated that “Gustavus will maintain its current size of 2200-2300 students”.  The current enrollment is over 2,500 students.

After the devastating tornado of 1998 the Drive for Quality campaign, begun in 1976, was put on a fast track and called “Building a Greater Gustavus.”  There was a sudden, great need for new open space development and for residential and academic buildings. 

A number of new residential and academic buildings were built or renovated in 1999, including the College View Apartments, Prairie View Hall, Arbor View Apartments, and International Center.  The Jackson Campus Center nearly doubled the size of the Food Service Building by adding 47,000 square feet to the existing building.

Formative Years (1876 to 1911)
1876 Old Main
22,070 gsf
Pre-WWII Growth (1912 to 1942)  
1921 Johnson Student Union (original gymnasium, renovated in 1987)
25,422 gsf
1929 Stadium/Hollingsworth Field
7,500 gsf
1929 Shops/Grounds (various years)
12,000 gsf
1929 Uhler Hall (renovated in 1982)
46,170 gsf
1939 Rundstrom Hall 
20,777 gsf
1941 Peterson House, 1001 South 7th Street (acquired)
2,100 gsf
GI Bulge (1943 to 1959)
1947 Wahlstom Hall 
49,137 gsf
1948 Anderson Social Science Center (originally the library)
31,111 gsf
1950 Exchange, 317 S. 7th Street (acquired)
3,240 gsf
1952 Adolphson House, 1023 S. 7th. Street (acquired)
2,080 gsf
1952 Pine House, 712 Pine Street (acquired)
1,216 gsf
1952 Ten-O-Nine House, 1009 S. 7th Street (acquired)
1,216 gsf
1953 Sjostrom House, 1108 S. 7th Street (acquired)
1,936 gsf
1953 Walker House, 1017 S. 7th Street (acquired) 
1,798 gsf
1956 Sorensen Hall
39,138 gsf
1956 Almen Vickner Guest House 
3,828 gsf
1958 Lundgren House, 825 Myrtle (acquired) – rebuilt in 1998
2,390 gsf
Campus Expansion (1960 to 1975)
1961 Vickner Hall
16,242 gsf
1962 North Hall  
39,444 gsf
1962 Pittman Hall
41,437 gsf
1962 Sohre Hall
41,243 gsf
1962 Christ Chapel
23,907 gsf
1963 Nobel Hall of Science 
87,656 gsf
1960-1966 Food Service Building
55,014 gsf
1966 Retreat Center
8,968 gsf
1965 Link Hall
13,114 gsf
1967 Norelius Hall
112,076 gsf
1969 Heating Plant (last addition)
5,986 gsf
1971 Schaefer Fine Arts Center (art)
30,316 gsf
1971 Schaefer Fine Arts Center (music and theatre)
93,562 gsf
1971 President’s House
4,308 gsf
1972 Folke Bernadotte Library
92,862 gsf
1972 Carlson Administration Building
18,180 gsf
1975 Lund Ice Arena
53,000 gsf
Drive for Quality (1976 to 1997)
1984 Lund Center (addition to Lund Ice Arena)
152,650 gsf
1988 Melva Lind Interpretive Center
2,224 gsf
1991 Olin Hall
64,259 gsf
1991 Confer Hall  
21,120 gsf
1992 Swanson Tennis Center
49,540 gsf
Building a Greater Gustavus
1999 College View Apartments
48,800 gsf
1998 Prairie View Hall
11,960 gsf
1998 Arbor View Apartments (acquired) – rebuilt in 1998
17,560 gsf
1998 Shops
19,344 gsf
     Shops under Stadium
7,500 gsf
1999 Jackson Campus Center
106,195 gsf
2000 International Center
32,430 gsf

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II.1.C Building Use

Gustavus Adolphus College is comprehensive in its offerings, available services and range of facilities. The Building Use diagram (Figure II.1.C) shows the distribution of the facility and building uses.  These are categorized as follows:

  • Academic
  • Residential
  • Student Life
  • Public/Performance
  • Administrative
  • Support Services

Campus building uses are separated into distinct areas of the campus.  Academic buildings are toward the south end of campus. Many Student Life activities take place in Lund Center, Jackson Campus Center, and Christ Chapel, in buildings managed primarily for non-academic student use.  Performance and other public space occurs in the Schaefer Fine Arts Center, Jackson Campus Center, Lund Center and Swanson Tennis Center.  Administrative services take place primarily in the center of campus, in Carlson Administration Building, Johnson Student Union, and Jackson Campus Center.

Gustavus Adolphus is a residential campus, and its mission includes a commitment to students living on campus.  The majority of this housing is accommodated ineight residence halls and a collection of 17 houses in the immediate neighborhood. In a few cases, administrative or support functions are also located within residence halls, such as the Physical Plant and the Office of Safety and Security, which are located in the lower level of Norelius.  This makes the residence hall lock-up policy problematic. Student housing in individual houses provides an alternative to the residence hall lifestyle for senior students at the expense of losing these students as role models to other students.  Additionally, the maintenance of these houses is not cost effective.   The north halls have a separate ethos due to their proximity to student life buildings rather than academic buildings. This situation is exacerbated by Parking Lot A, which separates Norelius from the campus core, and College plicy, which locates first year students primarily in Norelius.  Concern has been raised about the resulting differing focus of the students in each residential zone.

  Most of the residence halls have been located outside of College Circle, segregating them from the interior of campus. Recent construction of Prairie View Hall and the International House create a new impetus for mixed-use development in the southwest quadrant of the campus interior.

Student life buildings are managed for primarily non-academic student use.  Five buildings fall into this category:  Christ Chapel, which also has a public/performance/component; Lund Center and Swanson Tennis Center, which have both public/performance and academic components; and Johnson Student Union and Jackson Campus Center, which have primarily student life uses with some administrative components.  The majority of student life buildings are located on the north half of the campus core, closest to Norelius Hall, North/Link/Sorenson Halls, and Uhler Hall.

Swanson Tennis Center is primarily dedicated to public functions or performance spaces with secondary academic use.  Schaefer Fine Arts Center has two spaces, Anderson Theatre and Bjorling Recital Hall, which are secondarily public/performance spaces.  Additionally the Melva Lind Interpretive Center, the Stadium, Lund Center, Christ Chapel, Johnson Student Union and Jackson Campus Center have secondary public/performance uses.  Christ Chapel, Jackson Campus Center, Lund Center and the Stadium all host significant public events with attendance in excess of 1000 persons.  Because the current main entrance to the campus is from the east, yet the largest public events are held in spaces on the west of the campus, wayfinding to public parking adjacent to these spaces can be difficult. 

Service functions include Shops, located near Swanson Tennis Center, the Heating Plant, located east of Anderson Social Science Center, and several components scattered in other buildings, including storage in residential buildings and garages.  The central location of the Heating Plant is suitable since it minimizes utility tunnel and piping costs.  The new trade shops at the Stadium and the grounds shops at the tennis center are also well-situated. 

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II.1.D Academic Zones

Academic buildings are located in the southern half of the campus, with Nobel Hall of Science as the locus point.  The Arts are located to the southwest in the Schaefer Fine Arts Center; Quantitative and Empirical Reasoning are centrally located in Olin Hall and Nobel Hall; Languages are located in Confer and Vickner Halls; Human Behavior and Social Sciences are centered in Anderson Social Science Center; and Personal Fitness and Lifetime Sports are located in Lund Center and Swanson Tennis Center.  Old Main houses multiple departments from multiple disciplines.  With the exception of Old Main, Anderson Social Science Center, and Nobel Hall, the general pattern is one of related departmental and faculty offices in buildings separate from other disciplines.  This pattern is necessary for cohesive departmental identity, but is a disadvantage in encouraging the inter-disciplinary interaction desirable in a liberal arts curriculum. Academic support functions include the library, media services and information technology.  The campus, in response, has been to distribute academic support functions, primarily computer labs, in a range of academic buildings.

Corresponding with the distribution of academic disciplines, specialized classroom space types, such as labs or studio spaces are generally located in the same building as the remainder of related departmental office spaces.  However, general use classrooms are available in 6 buildings:  Confer and Vickner Halls, Anderson Social Science Center, Old Main, Nobel Hall and Olin Hall.  Large lecture halls are available in Olin, Social Sciences, Confer, Nobel and Schaefer Fine Arts Center.  The use of large lecture halls, general classrooms, seminar rooms and conference rooms is not restricted to the academic disciplines housed in the building.  For example, Chemistry holds classes in Schaefer Fine Arts Center.

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II.1.E Classroom Use

Classroom use is illustrated by showing the total student class hours per week in various classroom buildings.  Nobel has the highest student use, with over 6000 hours per week.  Other high classroom use buildings include Anderson, Confer and Olin, creating a core zone of student academic activity. Student classroom use is lowest at the Library, Tennis Center, Interpretive Center and Vickner.  Another way to interpret this diagram is as an indicator of student destination.  Walking distances expressed as timed radius rings are shown to indicate walking distances from Nobel, and the core zone of Nobel, Anderson, Confer and Olin to residence halls and other facilities.  The central location of Nobel on the campus is equally convenient to all residence halls except Norelius.  Walking distances indicate that between classes, students may chose not to return to their residence halls, but seek out nearby social space.  This is why proximity to this zone is important for proposed new facilities, which will have considerable student use.  Exterior and interior gathering spaces need to be readily available in this area.

Listed below are the buildings evaluated.

VERY HIGH (over 6000 hours)
Nobel Hall of Science

HIGH (4500-6000 hours)

MEDIUM (3000-4500 hours)
Lund Center
Olin Hall
Schaefer Fine Arts Center west
Old Main

LOW (1500- 3000 hours)
Schaefer Fine Arts Center east

VERY LOW (under 1500 hours)
Folke Bernadotte Library
Swanson Tennis Center

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II.1.F Residential Character and Density

Gustavus Adolphus is a residential campus. The current residence halls can accommodate 1885 students and are currently full.  Of the 2,592 students enrolled in 2001, 80% lived on campus. The goal is to increase the percentage of on-campus students to 90%.  The diagram illustrates the occupancy types of the various residence halls.  The northern residence halls are more evenly mixed by class.  The central residence halls, which are also the oldest, house primarily Juniors and Seniors.  This is due to housing assignment policies that give preference to upper classes. Based upon this process a pattern has evolved over time.  Most First Year students are typically assigned to Norelius Hall.  By choice, they elect to move as Sophomores to North/Link/Sorensen Halls and as Juniors and Seniors to Uhler Hall, College View Apartments, or off campus.  The southern halls tend to follow a different pattern, with students electing to stay in their original halls throughout their residency, although there is a tendency for upper classes to elect to reside in Rundstrom Hall/Prairie View Hall and Arbor View Apartments. 

Diagram II.1.F illustrates the types of students occupying the various College residence halls and apartments.  First Year/Sophomore students occupy Norelius Hall, Lundgren House, and North/Link/Sorensen Halls in the northern campus sector.  Juniors and Seniors occupy halls in all zones of campus (College View Apartments, Uhler Hall, Sjostrom House, Ten-O-Nine House, Walker House, Peterson House, Adolphson House, Johnson House and Arbor View Apartments.)  Guests, Faculty and Staff are housed in Almen Vickner, Johnson House, and Sorensen House.  The facilities listed below house students from all classes: 

  • International Center
  • Rundstrom Hall
  • Wahlstrom Hall

Norelius and North/Link Sorenson are the highest occupancy residence halls on campus, being physically the largest.  These residence halls also primarily house First Year and Sophomore students.  The medium and low occupancy buildings house mixed student classes.  This contributes to the different north-south residence hall ethos.  To compensate for scale, the Head Resident is assigned half time for Norelius Hall.  In other halls the Head Resident is assigned quarter time.  The ratio of Collegiate Fellows also varies from hall to hall.

Arbor View and College View Apartments are new additions.  They provide another opportunity for Juniors and Seniors to stay involved with campus life and younger students by living in on-campus housing.  The Arbor View Apartments can be expanded to form a larger housing complex on the site.  The drawback of this new housing location is that it is across Jefferson Avenue, which isolates the students and creates an inconvenience when students walk to classes.

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II.1.G Campus Social Space

Social spaces are identified on Figure II.1.G.  Social density is denoted by space type in each location where it currently occurs on campus.  There is a general perception that the campus is currently short of unstructured social space for students and faculty, both indoors and outdoors. Buildings such as Norelius, Rundstrom and Uhler have had portions of their existing social space converted into other functions.  Schaefer Fine Arts Center (Studio Arts) and Lund Center were designed without interior gathering spaces. A general campus trend has been to convert existing social/gathering space in academic buildings into offices or other assignable activities.  Recently the College has recognized that this trend must be reversed.   Newer buildings, such as Olin Hall, International Center and Jackson Campus Center, have been designed with unassigned social space.  Opportunities exist to create more social space in residence halls; Lund Center, Old Main and Carlson Administration Building, as the College implements building renovation and additions. 

The Johns Family Courtyard between the Lund Center and Jackson Campus Center is a new opportunity for exterior social space.  The International Center includes a popular terrace overlooking the football field, which has become an important social space.  Eckman Mall has new social gathering spaces, and the space between Parking Lots A and G has been strengthened as an informal recreation space.  An opportunity still exists to improve and add to amenities of the recreational space near the South Tennis Courts, since the current available space is underutilized.  Other opportunities for new outdoor gathering spaces exist around the academic buildings and are marked on Figure II.1.G.

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II.1.H ADA Status

(ADA status to be developed from existing ADA assessments provided by Gustavus Adolphus.  Priority Buildings established as Old Main, Anderson Social Science, the north end of Schaefer Fine Arts Center, Johnson Student Union, Rundstrom Hall, Uhler Hall, Wahlstrom Hall, and Christ Chapel.)

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II.1.I Building Condition

Building Condition defines the physical status of the building.  It assesses such factors as age, appropriateness to current functions, known structural, architectural, mechanical or electrical deficiencies and accessibility.  This assessment is primarily the judgement of the Physical Plant Department.  There is a general correlation between building age and condition, especially since mechanical systems typically have a 30-year life span.

The buildings of the Campus Expansion era of construction (1960-1975) are fundamentally sound, but are pre-ADA and pre-technology.  Several significant program additions and physical deficiencies / modifications have been identified by Departmental users and are listed in the Appendix.

Buildings were rated according to their condition, ranging from Excellent to Poor.  Much improvement to the building conditions on campus occurred after the tornado of 1998. The majority of buildings (75%) on campus are now in excellent to good condition, whereas very few (12%) are in poor condition. Some buildings that had been in poor condition were irreparably damaged by the tornado or have been removed. The Jackson Campus Center has been created to enhance the student dining experience and reconcile functional and operational aspects of the kitchen. Christ Chapel and Johnson Student Union has been thoroughly renovated.  Those remaining buildings in poor and fair condition, such as Old Main, Wahlstrom Hall and Anderson Social Science Center, are now being addressed in the master plan. All fiber optic network lines run to a small room next to Anderson Social Science Center’s computer lab, which serves as the primary hub for the Campus network distribution.  This campus fiber optic network must be taken into account in the renovation of Anderson Social Science Center.

North, Link and Sorensen Halls do not meet the residence hall standards for the rest of campus, due to lack of social space, a double-loaded corridor, and other quality-of-life issues.  Prairie View Hall is not a long-term structure.  It provides a modular, temporary swing space that eventually will be replaced.

The buildings have been categorized as follows:


  • Almen-Vickner Guest House
  • Campus Center
  • Christ Chapel
  • College View Apartments
  • Confer/Vickner
  • Folke Bernadotte Memorial Library
  • International Center
  • Johnson Student Union
  • Lundgren House
  • Lund Center
  • Nobel Hall of Science
  • Olin Hall
  • President's Residence
  • Sorensen House
  • Swanson Tennis Center


  • Carlson Administration Building
  • Heating Plant
  • Norelius Hall
  • Pittman Hall
  • Prairie View Hall
  • Rundstrom Hall
  • Schaefer Fine Arts Center
  • Sohre Hall
  • Uhler Hall


  • North/Link/Sorenson Halls
  • Old Main
  • Sjostrom House
  • Adolphson House
  • Walker House
  • Ten-O-Nine House
  • Peterson House


  • Anderson Social Science Center
  • Pine House
  • Stadium
  • Wahlstrom Hall

An Building Condition Analysis has been prepared by the Physical Plant Department and can be found in the Appendices, Part 4.

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Part 2. Open Space Conditions

II.2.A Open Space Network and Amenities

Open spaces are the non-built spaces on the campus shaped by buildings, circulation, topography and vegetation.  The Gustavus Adolphus Campus consists of a variety of open space types.

Within the campus core,  campus malls connect the academic buildings and create a pedestrian focus.  The malls consist of relatively open lawn expanses with vistas on axis with campus landmarks.  The network of axes incorporates two important buildings, Old Main and Christ Chapel. Christ Chapel, in particular, was designed and sited to serve as the organizing device for future campus open spaces and vistas.  There is an opportunity to strengthen and extend this open space on the West Mall and the South Mall.  From the West Mall, a vista exists but the mall is foreshortened by the Stadium.  The South Mall has no southern landmark now that the Schaefer Fine Arts Center gallery no longer serves as a major public destination. The open space outside the gallery represents an opportunity to complete the mall.

Campus plazas have been created on the northwest and southeast axes of Christ Chapel to anchor the building and provide outdoor gathering spaces.  The Johns Family Courtyard has been created between Lund Center, Jackson Campus Center and the Library, forming an outdoor gathering space in the center of campus, comfortably bound by the surrounding buildings.

Six raised earth terraces exist, the most significant of which is the plinth upon which Christ Chapel rests.  The device effectively reconciles the diagonal plan of Christ Chapel within the orthogonal character of the North and South Malls.  It also eliminates the temptation for pedestrians to cut diagonally across the open space.  Other terraces include the amphitheater located east of Schaefer Fine Arts Center, the area northeast of Lund Center, the area east of North/Link/Sorenson Halls, the area east of Folke Bernadotte Library, and the raised earth form alongside Confer Hall, which is the covered portion of underground construction.

Campus lawns are pastoral, informal areas that occur along the bluffline east of Hello Walk.  They serve as a transition between the campus core and the surrounding St. Peter neighborhoods along Jefferson and Seventh Streets.  Replanted with groves of deciduous trees after the tornado, they provide an important informal recreation area for the adjacent residence halls.

Athletic and recreational playing fields, consisting primarily of turf, are concentrated on the northwest side of campus, adjacent to Campus Drive, Lund Center and Norelius Hall.  An athletic/recreation zone has also been developed between Lund Center and Swanson Tennis Center, creating a convenient and unified destination for sports and recreation, as seen on Figure II.2.A. 

Along the northwest edge of campus, the College owns the “Gardner 80 Acres” and the “Lambert 40 Acres.” Although these properties are currently leased to local farmers, some of the “Lambert 40 Acres” have been developed as athletic and recreation fields.

The Arboretum, bounded by the shelterbelt, Campus Drive, and county roads, is a valuable natural area, used for education, inspiration and recreation. A botanical garden with a formal plant collection has been developed on the southeast portion. The remaining area is composed of several distinct natural areas that represent the predominant plant habitats of Minnesota.  The original master plan for the Arboretum assumed future expansion would occur on the “Gardner 80 Acres.”

The campus also owns a notable sculpture collection, created by the Sculptor in Residence, Paul Granlund.  Over twenty-six sculptures are situated on the campus.  The siting of the sculptures is varied.  In some situations, sculpture is placed adjacent to building entrances, as a door or place marker.  Other sitings are ceremonial in nature, on axis with architectural or open space, such as sculpture at Christ Chapel.  Still other sitings are thematic or interpretive, such as the Linneaus bust at the Interpretive Center.  Generally, sculpture is most concentrated near the campus core.

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II.2.B Athletic and RecreationFacilities

Significant improvements have taken place in the athletic and recreation facilities since 1995, when the original Framework Plan was completed.  At that time, athletic fields were concentrated on the north end of campus, and the outdoor space for athletics and recreation was not well-designed for the changing needs and interests of the student body.  Relocating the football field and track were identified as a top priority.

Today, the Swanson Tennis Center has been expanded on the north side of Campus Drive, with adjacent soccer/softball fields and an open field that can be used as event parking. The relocation of Campus Drive around the new track is a significant improvement in unifying athletic and recreational space. The track and field complex and performance soccer field adjacent to the Lund Center provide an important multi-use space. Intramural and varsity practice fields anchor the southwest corner of the campus, adjacent to the gateway to the Arboretum path system. 

Future planning will include decisions about how to develop the space currently occupied by the Stadium, which is a logical area of expansion for both recreational fields and buildings.  The Framework Plan options for campus development, presented in Section III, propose further improvements to athletic and recreational facilities, such as continued development of the “Lambert 40 Acres,” expansion of the Lund Center, and relocation of the varsity baseball and softball fields to create a new field complex.

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Part 3. Cir culation Systems

II.3.A Regional Vehicular Circulation

The campus location on the western periphery of the city of St. Peter has meant relative isolation from surrounding vehicular traffic issues.  Ceremonial access to the campus is from College Avenue, easily found from Highway 169.  The agricultural areas which have traditionally surrounded the campus are being developed into residential neighborhoods.

The City of St. Peter and Nicollet County have proposed revisions to Nicollet Avenue.  Nicollet Avenue has been identified by the city as the best situated north-south collector to link Highway 99 to Highway 22.  Improvements were made to the roadbed to the south of the campus up to Jefferson Street to accommodate increased traffic flows, and discussions with the city continue.  The proposed alignment for the extension of Nicollet Avenue will negatively affect the College property.  When the final location of the Nicollet Avenue extension is determined it will have significant impact on the Arboretum expansion.

The relocation of County Road 5 connecting Fort Road to Broadway has been completed, which successfully routes traffic away from the interior of the campus.  This important relocation has alleviated the pedestrian/vehicular conflict the College faced when students crossed to the Swanson Tennis Center and College View Apartments. 

There is an undesirable campus entrance at the junction of Sunrise Drive and West Grace Street, where commercial development lends no clear identity and there is an opportunity for an improved campus gateway.  The other campus entrances are the ceremonial entryway from College Avenue and the southern entrance off of Jefferson Street.

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II.3.B Campus Roadways

The primary feature of the campus roadway system is the ring road (Campus Drive) which surrounds the campus core.  The ring road was conceived as early as 1945, but not completed until 1980.  Access to Campus Drive is from three locations:  the primary, ceremonial entrance from College Drive on the east; from Jefferson Avenue on the south and from Grace Street and Sunrise Drive on the north.

Service vehicles travel through campus on two types of roadways. Service drives are paved and provide service access to the campus core from the western section of Campus Drive.  Service vehicles use the existing campus walks to reach older buildings along Hello Walk. These service routes accommodate occasional vehicles to service the buildings along the bluff side of campus.  

The service routes that use walkways cause conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles and encourage illegal parking.  The Office of Safety and Security has noted difficulty in responding to requests in areas that are not on the service drive system.  At the same time, there appears to be no desire to expand the presence of service vehicles and drives on the campus.  The Physical Plant Department is using smaller vehicles on service routes to reduce conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles.

The following issues about campus roadway design need resolution:

  • Vehicle/pedestrial conflict between Swanson Tennis Center, College View Apartments, and  Lund Center
  • Lack of dropoff space for Bjorling Recital Hall
  • Inadequate wayfinding from Campus Drive to Parking Lot A near the Campus Center (also see II.3.C, Campus Parking.)
  • Lack of drop-off space at the south residence halls

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II.3.C Campus Parking

As seen on Figure II.3.C, parking is distributed throughout campus in surface lots that contain color-coded signage which correspond with the four categories of parking permits issued by the College.  Most lots include more than one category of parking permit.

Gustavus Adolphus continues to have both a shortage and poor distribution of student parking.  Parking is particularly inadequate for first-year students, who primarily live in Norelius Hall on the east side of campus yet have their parking spaces near the Arbor View Apartments and Prairie View Hall on the west.  In addition, there is a shortage of residential parking in the southern corner of campus around Pittman, Sohre, and Wahlstrom Halls. 

The busiest lots are Parking Lots A and D, which are easily accessed from Campus Drive and have adequate space for many types of permits. The largest lot on campus is Parking Lot A, located north of Jackson Campus Center close to the College Drive entrance.  This lot contains all four parking permit categories, except first-year students, as well as a large block of visitor parking.  The successful utilization of Jackson Campus Center, by off and on campus constitutents, has led to an increasing demand for visitor parking and competition between faculty, staff and students for access to parking in this precinct.  There is a lack of parking around Christ Chapel.

The lots between the Intramural Open Field and the Stadium supply parking space for commuting students, resident students, faculty, and staff.  If these lots are replaced by West Mall development, it will be critical to meet those parking needs somewhere nearby.

Field Parking, as shown on figure II.3.C, serves as overflow space for athletic events, the Nobel Conference, and Christmas in Christ Chapel.

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II.3.D Pedestrian Circulation

The primary campus destinations for pedestrians are Nobel Hall and the Campus Center.  Pedestrian corridors reflect these destinations.  The routes shown are based upon interviews with the Department of Safety and Security and observations of pedestrian traffic patterns.  Paved interior and exterior routes generally run north-south, following the linear north-south orientation of the campus. The unpaved informal routes reinforce this movement.  The lack of diagonal sidewalk connections in the exisiting pattern of sidewalks encourages pedestrians to create shortcuts across lawns. The construction of the new soccer/softball fields in the Lambert 40, the expansion of Swanson Tennis Center and the College View Apartments, and the relocation of the Shops, has increased pedestrian traffic conflicts in this precinct.  The strongest paved desire line connects Norelius Hall and Parking Lot A to the campus core and Eckman Mall.

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Part 4. Utility Systems

II 4.A Storm Sewers and Sanitary Sewers

The storm and sanitary sewer diagram illustrates the general campus distribution in a schematic format. The Physical Plant Department maintains more detailed plans of the distribution system.

The campus sanitary sewer system is connected to and considered a part of the City of Saint Peter< sanitary sewer system. The College is annexed to the City in order to take advantage of these services. The campus lies at the head of the system, uphill from the collectors located in College Drive<, Seventh Street< and Grace Street<.

The entire campus storm drainage is part of the Minnesota River Watershed. Two types of infrastructure constitute the campus storm drainage system. The property currently owned by the College is split by a major watershed divide that runs southwest to northeast. The divide extends through the core of the currently developed campus area. Due to relatively flat topography, the surface drainage of the area near the divide is somewhat ambiguous. In general, excess storm water runoff either flows easterly and is eventually collected by the City of Saint Peter storm sewer system, or it flows westerly, either to a newly constructed storm sewer system on the north half of campus or to a system of low areas and drywells on the south half of the campus. The recently constructed storm sewer infrastructure and storm water ponds were a result of a campus-specific storm water study done in 1999. A copy of the study is on file at the Physical Plant office. The storm water ponds serve a dual role one as a filtration pond for runoff and also as a water feature for the arboretum. The south half of the campus remains served by a drywell system.

As development occurs in the south half of campus, storm sewer infrastructure will be constructed and directed to either the existing storm water ponds or a new storm water pond constructed also within the arboretum area.

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